quinta-feira, 9 de maio de 2019

Chaya. Coluna do caderno Paladar. Edição de 09 de maio de 2019


Hoje foi dia de coluna Nhac no caderno Paladar do Estadão. Tanto no jornal impresso quanto no site. E, claro, aqui também. 

Chaya

Poderia ser a chaya apenas mais uma panaceia a caminho – superalimentos têm que ter calma e esperar a vez, até passar a moda de seus antecessores milagrosos. Enquanto isso, em outros países, o item já está na frente e parece que chegou pra ficar, amparado por inúmeros estudos que comprovam o que os maias já sabiam desde a época pré-colombiana. Eu gosto desta verdura por vários outros motivos que destaco a seguir.

A chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) é uma planta arbustiva domesticada, natural da região maia da Guatemala, Belize, Sudeste do México, Península de Yucatán e partes de Honduras.  Pode ser novidade para a maioria dos leitores e leitoras, mas é espécie comum entre hortelões urbanos brasileiros  – em quase toda horta urbana há um pé de chaya, pode reparar - e nas feiras de trocas de mudas e sementes. Assim, nos últimos anos, ela tem se espalhado por hortas comunitárias, quintais produtivos e em sistemas agroflorestais de norte a sul. E, claro, tem frequentado a mesa de quem está atento à alimentação do futuro com baixo impacto ambiental na produção.

Meu contato com ela não tem muitos anos. Ganhei de dois amigos pesquisadores, Valdely Kinupp e Nuno Madeira, duas variedades que se ambientaram perfeitamente no meu quintal. Era o que faltava para minha pequena coleção de plantas alimentícias perenes. Aos poucos fui deixando na terra apenas espécies que conseguissem se virar por conta própria, sem adubação nem água durante as viagens de fim de semana, por exemplo. Por isto, nunca fico sem verduras, pois ora-pro-nobis, vinagreira roxa, moringa e chaya são fontes quase inesgotáveis de vitaminas, minerais, fibras e ainda um pouco de proteínas, sem exigir nada de mim em troca a não ser as podas, pois água de chuva e luz do sol não me custam nada. Não dão pragas ou doenças, não exigem correção de solo e fornecem alimento mesmo no inverno ou verão rigorosos. Então, o que mais podemos esperar destas plantas?  Pois bem, se tudo isto já não bastasse, ainda são todas medicinais e sobre isto há vasto material de pesquisa.

Devido ao grande porte para uma hortaliça, ao sabor agradável que lembra a couve e espinafre e ao excelente valor nutricional e alta produtividade o ano todo, é ideal para se cultivar em hortas públicas e entrar no cardápio da merenda escolar – é o caso da prefeitura de Jundiaí que tem investido no cultivo de plantas alimentícias não convencionais para compor a merenda escolar e a chaya está entre as espécies cultivadas.

Em geral as folhas são formadas por três ou mais lóbulos com pecíolos longos e carnosos. Quando se quebra qualquer parte da planta, ela exsuda uma seiva branca, como a mandioca, aliás, da mesma família, a das Euforbiáceas.  Há pelos menos quatro variedades cultivadas, sendo as mais comuns por aqui a Estrela, que pode crescer a até 6 metros de altura e tem pecíolos longos; e a Picuda que chega a 3 metros de altura e tem folhas bem serrilhadas, com 5 a 7 lóbulos – as da foto. Há ainda duas outras variedades menos comuns que apresentam pelos urticantes, característica que desaparece com o cozimento.

Se compararmos com o espinafre, ambos na forma fresca, temos na chaya duas vezes mais proteínas, mais que o dobro de carboidratos e gorduras saudáveis e mais que seis vezes a quantidade de vitamina A, B1 e C. Além de ser rica em fibras.  E, só para citar outra espécie rica em proteínas, 100 g de ora-pro-nobis desidratada tem cerca de 20 g de proteínas, enquanto a mesma quantidade de chaya seca tem 32,8 g. Apesar do alto valor nutricional e propriedades farmacológicas como hipoglicemiante, por exemplo, mesmo em grande parte da Guatemala a chaya é considerada uma planta alimentícia pouco convencional.

Algumas características podem ser responsáveis pelo abandono de uma das folhas mais ricas que se conhece. Os pelos urticantes de variedades silvestres e a presença de látex causam desconfiança, assim como a necessidade de cocção devido à presença de um glicosídeo que forma ácido cianídrico, similar ao encontrado na mandioca, mas que desaparece facilmente com o cozimento por 20 minutos. Sem contar que não há casos registrados de intoxicação pelo consumo das folhas – a intoxicação aguda poderia causar dificuldade de respiração e complicações decorrentes disso.  

A única opção para se consumir crua a espinaca maya ou espinafre de árvore, como também é conhecida a chaya, é na forma de água fresca - refresco popular no México feito geralmente com frutas da estação, mas também com flores ou ervas.  A água de chaya com abacaxi é popular em Tabasco, Veracruz e Oaxaca, estados do Sul com maior produção de abacaxi. Pode ser ainda com limão, laranja ou uma combinação destas frutas. 

Na província de Yuacatán, a variação com limão e o creme de chaya estão entre as delícias que não podem deixar de ser provadas por quem visita a região.  Basta bater no liquidificador algumas folhas de chaya com água, suco de limão e açúcar. A bebida herbácea, deliciosa, tem um tom de verde intenso e é servida com muito gelo. Dizem que a presença de  acidez e a trituração neutralizam a toxina e é isto que a população maia vem fazendo há milhares de anos. Outra forma de se fazer água fresca de chaya é usando a água em que as folhas foram cozidas – diferente da taioba, a água de cocção da chaya não precisa ser desprezada.  É só deixar gelar, acrescentar suco de limão e açúcar e terá um refresco de sabor agradável. Pode também ser usada para enriquecer caldos e sopas.

O tamal com chaya, pamonha de massa de milho nixtamalizado, é outro preparo clássico feito com a verdura no sul do México, onde também aparece em sopas, no arroz, em ensopados, colorindo massas e empanadas e enriquecendo recheios, por exemplo. Para prepará-las, lave bem folhas jovens, coloque-as inteiras ou picadas em panela de ágata ou inox,  cubra com água limpa e deixe cozinhar por 20 minutos.  Escorra e use as folhas, que continuarão bem verdes, como se fossem de espinafre. Podes ser ainda picadas fininho como couve, refogadas em alho e azeite, cobertas com água e cozidas por 10 minutos ou até secar a água.

Para quem quiser conhecer, talvez um bom caminho seja procurar em feiras de produtores. Aqui em São Paulo pode ser que encontre na feira de orgânicos do Parque da Água Branca, no Instituto Feira Livre ou Instituto Chão. Se não, consiga uma muda e plante numa praça ou no seu quintal. É um arbusto discreto com crescimento rápido.
Na receita a seguir, a massa é baseada na de empanada da chef Paola Carosella à qual simplesmente adicionei a chaya cozida e espremida. 


Pasteis de forno de chaya com queijo de coalho 

Massa
500 g de farinha de trigo
½ xícara de banha
1 xícara de água
½ colher (sopa) de sal
½ xícara de chaya cozida, espremida e finamente picada
Recheio
300 g de queijo de coalho
3 claras de ovo ligeiramente batidas só pra misturar
15 folhas de mentruz (erva-de-santa-maria)
Para pincelar
1 gema
½ xícara de leite
1 pitada de açúcar  - opcional

Aqueça a água e misture com a banha. Espere derreter e enquanto ainda está morna despeje sobre a farinha de trigo peneirada com o sal. Junte a chaya, misture bem, só até a massa ficar homogênea (sem sovar), embale em saco plástico e deixe na geladeira por cerca de 4 horas ou até firmar.
Enquanto isto, faça o recheio. Rale grosso o queijo e misture com a clara batida. Divida em 15 porções.
Divida a massa em 15 porções, abra com rolo até ficar com 3 milímetros, mais ou menos, coloque no centro uma porção do recheio e uma folhinha de mentruz. Feche os pasteis, dobrando a parte de baixo sobre a de cima ou apertando com um garfo.
Misture a gema com o leite e passe por cima dos pasteis. Se quiser, polvilhe um pouquinho de açúcar.
Coloque-os em assadeira untada com óleo (passe um guardanapo de papel para deixar uma camada muito fina). Leve ao forno preaquecido bem quente e deixe assar por 10 minutos ou até ficarem dourados.

Rende: 15 pasteis


17 comentários:

Heloisa de Mesquita Inoue disse...

Oi, você postou as folhas... e, o pé desta planta como é? Um bom fim de semana para você!

Lutheran Hospital disse...

Este é um anúncio público para todos que querem vender um rim, temos pacientes que precisam de um transplante de rim, por isso, se você estiver interessado em vender um rim, por favor entre em contato conosco em nosso e-mail em iowalutheranhospital@gmail.com
Você também pode ligar ou escrever para nós no whatsapp em +1 515 882 1607.

OBSERVAÇÃO: Sua segurança está garantida e nosso paciente concordou em pagar uma grande quantia de dinheiro para qualquer pessoa que concordar em doar um rim para salvá-lo. Esperamos ouvir de você, para que você possa salvar uma vida.

paritosh disse...

A lot of thanks for sharing your personal experience. I just learned a lot.
Photo Editing
clipping path service


Unknown disse...

Maravilhosa !
Compartilhei na pagina do Facebook
Somos do Coletivo de mulheres (Empório da chaya)
Gratidão por compartilhar

Juraj Kamensky disse...

Ten, kto dnes číta toto svedectvo, by mal osláviť so mnou a mojou rodinou, pretože to všetko začalo ako vtip pre niektorých ľudí a iní hovorili, že to nie je možné. Volám sa Juraj Kamensky a som z Bratislavy, ale s manželkou sa sťahujem do Chicaga. Som šťastne ženatý s dvoma deťmi a krásnou ženou. Niečo hrozné sa stalo mojej rodine, stratil som prácu a moja žena opustila dom, pretože som sa nemohla starať o seba a o potreby rodiny. a jej deti v tomto konkrétnom okamihu. Podarilo sa mi deväť rokov, žiadna žena, ktorá by ma podporovala, aby som sa o deti starala. Snažím sa poslať testovaciu správu mojej žene, ale ona blokovať ma z rozprávania s ňou sa snažím hovoriť so svojím priateľom a jej rodinnými príslušníkmi, ale stále viem, že by mi mohol pomôcť a ja som bol podanie žiadosti neskôr toľko spoločnosti, ale stále to urobili Nevolajte ma, kým neprišiel verný deň, že nikdy nezabudnem v mojom živote. Keď som sa stretol so starým priateľom môjho, ktorému som vysvetlil všetky moje ťažkosti a povedal mi o skvelom mužovi, ktorý mu pomohol získať dobrú prácu v Coca cola spoločnosť a on mi povedal, že jeho kúzlo koliesko, ale ja som človek, ktorý nikdy neverí v kolieskach kúzla, ale ja som sa rozhodol dať mu vyskúšať a jeho meno je Drosagiede on ma poučil a ukázal mi, čo mám robiť v týchto troch dňoch obed spell.I sledovať všetky pokyny a robiť to, čo ma požiadal, aby som sa dobre. uistil sa, že všetko šlo dobre a moja žena ma opäť uvidí po skvelej práci Drosagiede. Moja žena mi zavolala s nevedomým číslom a ospravedlnila sa mi a povedala mi, že mi naozaj chýba a naše deti a moja žena sa vracajú domov.a po dvoch dňoch Spoločnosť, ktorej som poslala svoj uznávací list, teraz som manažérom spoločnosť Paragon tu v USA. Odporúčam vám, ak máte nejaké problémy, pošlite správu na tento e-mail: {doctorosagiede75@gmail.com} alebo čo mu dáte na +2349014523836 a dostanete najlepší výsledok. Vezmite veci za samozrejmosť a bude vám odobraté. Prajem Vám to najlepšie.

Mariana Silva disse...

Nossa não conhecia essa planta, acabei descobrindo por esse artigo seu, obrigada!

Unknown disse...

Muíto bom participei do empório das chaya e gostei amei

محمد على disse...


شركة مكافحة حشرات بالرياض
شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالرياض
شركة مكافحة الصراصير بالرياض
شركة مكافحة الفئران بالرياض
شركة رش مبيدات بالرياض

nader galal disse...

تقدم شركه الصفرات افضل العماله المدربه ونحن ملتزمون بتقديم ضمان للعميل علي جودة الخدمة المقدمة المتفق عليها مسبقا مع مندوبناونحن فى شركه الصفرات نسعى لتقديم افضل خدمه بأفضل الاسعار على الاطلاق
نحن فى شركه الصفرات نهتم بأدق التفاصيل لأداء الخدمه لعملاء الكرام فقط تواصلو معنا نصلكم اينما ىكنتم فى انحاء الرياض
يمكنكم أن تقوما بالاتصال بنا عبر الأرقام الموضحة لديكم وذلك على مدار اليوم، كما يمكنكم أن تقوموا بالتواصل معنا عبر مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي مثل الفيس بوك وتويتر والانستجرام،
وقد أتاحت الشركة خدمة التواصل عبر تطبيق الواتس أب وذلك حرصا على سهولة التواصل مع العملاء، ويقوم فريق متخصص بالرد على كافة استفسارات العملاء على مدار اليوم وطوال أيام الأسبوع،
وكل ما عليكم هو الاتصال بنا لنصلكم أينما كنتم في الرياض، نحن نقوم بخدمة كافة أحياء الرياض سواء شمال الرياض أو جنوب الرياض
أو منطقة الوسط، وعقب الاتصال يصلكم فريق من عمالتنا المتخصصة في كافة مناطق الرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف المنازل بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لعزل الاسطح بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف المجالس بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف السجاد بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لنقل الاثاث بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لمكافحة الحشرات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لكشف التسربات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف المسابح بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف الخزانات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتسليك المجاري بالرياض

kayan web disse...


House cleaning company in Hail represents the best and ideal solution for specialized and distinctive cleaning of all pieces of furniture and house rooms no matter the number of floors of the house and the number of rooms, where we work through a team trained on modern methods of cleaning using the latest steam cleaning machines that give outstanding results in cleaning sofas, boards, carpets and rugs It is also used to clean curtains and furnishings.Ceramic floors, chimneys and hoods are cleaned from hard fat stains and rust stains safely and completely.We also provide marble polishing services by providing the latest Italian marble polishing machines with the best types of detergents Its excellent cleaning and disinfecting houses cleaning company examples in Hail is the best choice and cheaper.
شركة تنظيف بحائل
شركة تنظيف فرش بحائل
شركة تنظيف مجالس بحائل
شركة تنظيف سجاد بحائل
شركة تنظيف منازل بحائل
شركة رش مبيدات بحائل
https://www.raya-hail.com

kayan web disse...



شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة
شركة نظافة بالمدينة المنورة
https://www.cleaningcompanyusa.com/

kayan web disse...


شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة
نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة
شركة نقل اثاث بالمدينة المنورة
https://www.vipfurnituremoving.com

kayan web disse...


شركة الصفرات للتنظيف بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف الخزانات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لمكافحة الحشرات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لنقل الاثاث بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لكشف التسربات بالرياض
https://www.beat-elkhibra.com/

kayan web disse...


Welcome to the official website of our company to clean apartments, houses, villas and shops in Saudi Arabia This is because we are the best home services company at the moment and by the testimony of our valued customers, the workers who work in the company have a very high experience in the field of cleaning in general, as well as we will give you cleanliness of the highest quality and the lowest prices with the testimony of customers, our goal is to satisfy our customers to the highest degree possible and thanks to God always First of all, thanks to the workers and technicians, we were able to satisfy all the customers who contracted with the company and contacted them, because we specialize in cleaning, sewerage and transport of luggage just contact us and you will notice that your house as if it is completely new from the intensity of cleanliness.
شركة الصفرات للتنظيف بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لتنظيف الخزانات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لمكافحة الحشرات بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لنقل الاثاث بالرياض
شركة الصفرات لكشف التسربات بالرياض
شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة
شركة تنظيف بينبع
https://www.cleanriyadh.com/

kayan web disse...


The task of moving a catcher needs to rely on شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة It is specialized and has a long history in this field, helping it to carry out the task of transporting the baggage without causing any problems. Among the precautions taken by the company during transport of the luggage are the following: High-quality packaging materials to ensure that no problems are encountered during transport, the luggage is loaded into the car very carefully so as not to be subject to any problems during transportation. The luggage is re-connected to the place where it is transported and the packaging that is placed on the pallet is removed. During transportation. , All the transferred items are written to make sure that there is no defect in the piece, therefore you will ensure the transfer of the baggage without being exposed to any problems during transportation, شركة نقل اثاث بالمدينة المنورة .
Is characterized by شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة With the experience and efficiency in the task of cleaning, as it uses the best equipment and the latest in addition to many aspects that focus on them to ensure that the cleaning is done to the fullest, and the most important things that you find in the fast service company and nowhere else find the following: It depends on the best detergents that can eliminate stains and smears, follow a certain system in the cleaning task; for this reason it ensures that it reaches the best results, depends on the latest methods such as steam cleaning method which proved its efficiency in the cleaning work, During which to eliminate all germs and The bacteria that are present in the place and maintain the health of the present, possess the best specialized perfumes that you can only find شركة نظافة بالمدينة المنورة.
that شركة تخزين اثاث بالمدينة المنورة It can store any quantity of furniture even if it is huge. This is because the company owns large warehouses divided into many sections. It packs and puts furniture in cars and is transported to the stores equipped with the highest level and has the latest means of monitoring. شركة تخزين عفش بالمدينة المنورة You will get satisfactory results without having to pay a lot of money in return
Be aware شركة تنظيف بينبع Cleaning works require the latest equipment for cleaning and the best detergents. This is what it provides to its customers. Therefore, it ensures the results. The company can clean any place, Will t D have شركة نظافة بينبع Discounts and offers can not be found elsewhere
The task of moving furniture from one place to another can not be done by anything, but it must rely on a specialized company such as شركة نقل اثاث بينبع ، As it will provide you with assurance that the furniture transfer works will be done well and will not be exposed any piece of the pieces to any problems during the transfer of furniture. In addition, it will carry out a comprehensive inspection of all parts before and before the transfer. The best packaging tools are used in this task. you only have to communicate with شركة نقل عفش بينبع .
Visit our website
https://www.zeenclean.com/
خدمات تنظيف

kayan web disse...



The task of moving a catcher needs to rely on شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة It is specialized and has a long history in this field, helping it to carry out the task of transporting the baggage without causing any problems. Among the precautions taken by the company during transport of the luggage are the following: High-quality packaging materials to ensure that no problems are encountered during transport, the luggage is loaded into the car very carefully so as not to be subject to any problems during transportation. The luggage is re-connected to the place where it is transported and the packaging that is placed on the pallet is removed. During transportation. , All the transferred items are written to make sure that there is no defect in the piece, therefore you will ensure the transfer of the baggage without being exposed to any problems during transportation, شركة نقل اثاث بالمدينة المنورة .
Is characterized by شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة With the experience and efficiency in the task of cleaning, as it uses the best equipment and the latest in addition to many aspects that focus on them to ensure that the cleaning is done to the fullest, and the most important things that you find in the fast service company and nowhere else find the following: It depends on the best detergents that can eliminate stains and smears, follow a certain system in the cleaning task; for this reason it ensures that it reaches the best results, depends on the latest methods such as steam cleaning method which proved its efficiency in the cleaning work, During which to eliminate all germs and The bacteria that are present in the place and maintain the health of the present, possess the best specialized perfumes that you can only find شركة نظافة بالمدينة المنورة.
that شركة تخزين اثاث بالمدينة المنورة It can store any quantity of furniture even if it is huge. This is because the company owns large warehouses divided into many sections. It packs and puts furniture in cars and is transported to the stores equipped with the highest level and has the latest means of monitoring. شركة تخزين عفش بالمدينة المنورة You will get satisfactory results without having to pay a lot of money in return
Be aware شركة تنظيف بينبع Cleaning works require the latest equipment for cleaning and the best detergents. This is what it provides to its customers. Therefore, it ensures the results. The company can clean any place, Will t D have شركة نظافة بينبع Discounts and offers can not be found elsewhere
The task of moving furniture from one place to another can not be done by anything, but it must rely on a specialized company such as شركة نقل اثاث بينبع ، As it will provide you with assurance that the furniture transfer works will be done well and will not be exposed any piece of the pieces to any problems during the transfer of furniture. In addition, it will carry out a comprehensive inspection of all parts before and before the transfer. The best packaging tools are used in this task. you only have to communicate with شركة نقل عفش بينبع .
Visit our website
https://www.zeenclean.com/
خدمات تنظيف

kayan web disse...



شركة تنظيف بالمدينة المنورة Is one of the best companies currently located in Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. Since the company started its activities more than twenty years ago, it has endeavored to develop all its services and made sure to provide the best service at the highest level of quality in cleaning and disinfection at the lowest prices possible. The company believes that the company's employment is a mirror that reflects the efficiency of the company that boasts of it. The worker must be confident and credible to provide the customer with everything he can provide. JAL cleaning and sterilization found in شركة تنظيف منازل بالمدينة المنورة .
شركة نقل اثاث بالمدينة المنورة Providing customers with transportation services of furniture and furniture and storage of furniture using the latest methods and methods and modern techniques and trained workers and freight cars specially equipped to transport furniture and clothes to anywhere inside or outside Medina, customers often need a city to transfer furniture to move furniture from their offices or homes Or their companies to new places but are afraid of their loss of damage or loss, but our company guarantees its customers to complete the transfer process safely and safely without being exposed to any piece of fracture or loss as the company provides a service to lift and download furniture using a hydraulic winch The only available within شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة .
شركة تنظيف بينبع The company's services include all kinds of services needed by customers such as house cleaning services, apartments, cleaning services for ground and upper water tanks, cleaning of palaces and cleaning services for hotels, residential complexes, mosques, parks, facilities and others. Types of Services The main governmental and private bodies cooperated with the cleaning company in Yanbu. Our company has provided them with the most complete image that has impressed them and increased their confidence in the skill and efficiency of our company and its employees. P safe and effective when providing various cleaning services such detergents, but inside there is no شركة تنظيف منازل بينبع .
شركة نقل اثاث بينبع Is one of the largest furniture transport companies in the city of Yanbu, which is known for providing services at the highest level and the company always offers offers and discounts and wonderful offers on the cost of services and this is what surprises customers and make them always put them the only choice for them, we have a professional team of carpenters who oversee the distinguished operations Dismantling and installing furniture and repair and maintenance of any fractures, as the company has workers polishing furniture and wooden furniture with effective polishes to remove the dirt from the layers of paint and make the furniture bright shiny like new, after the completion of cleaning the workers of evil Of furniture with materials encapsulates the strength and durability to protect the furniture from the external shocks or natural factors such materials are available only from within شركة نقل عفش بينبع
Visit our website
https://fajr-sate3.com/